Cocaine is a powerful stimulant that is typically sold as a white powder. It is most commonly snorted, although it can also be injected or smoked.
It is made from the leaves of the coca plant, which is native to South America. The leaves are processed to remove the cocaine alkaloid, which is then purified to produce cocaine hydrochloride.
Cocaine is often cut with other substances to increase profits or to dilute it, which lowers the purity of the drug and can include dangerous cutting agents and solvents.
Common cutting agents include sugars, local anesthetics, and other stimulants. Cutting agents can potentially increase the risk of adverse effects, including overdose.
All forms of cocaine, regardless of the substances they contain, may lead to a cocaine addiction.
The Process Of How Cocaine Is Made
Cocaine is derived from the leaves of the coca plant. The coca plant is native to South America and has been used by indigenous people for centuries.
The leaves of the plant are chewed or brewed into a tea to produce a sense of euphoria and increase energy levels.
When making cocaine for recreational use, the drug is made in different ways depending on whether it’s made into powder cocaine or crack cocaine.
Powder cocaine is typically made using a solvent such as gasoline or kerosene. This process involves extracting the cocaine alkaloids from the coca leaves.
The cocaine alkaloids are converted into cocaine hydrochloride, which is the form of cocaine that is commonly used recreationally.
The cocaine is then purified and cut with other substances to increase its potency. Many of these additives are cheap and widely available, such as baking soda, cornstarch, and talcum powder.
The leaves of the coca plant are processed to create coca paste, which is then mixed with ammonium hydroxide and water to create a coca base.
This coca base is mixed with baking soda or sodium bicarbonate and cooked over low heat to create crack cocaine.
Crack cocaine is typically sold in rock form, which can be smoked. The high from smoking crack cocaine is very short, only lasting about 5 to 10 minutes.
However, the effects of the drug are extremely powerful, and can include increased alertness, euphoria, and feelings of invincibility.
What Common Cutting Agents Are Used In Cocaine?
Cocaine production is illegal, since the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has labeled it an illicit drug. This process uses a number of cheap additives.
Additives, such as solvents, cutting agents, and other purifiers, can be found in various forms on the shelves of commonplace supermarkets and drugstores.
Common household items used to make cocaine are called adulterants, which are items secretly added to a cocaine base to create freebase cocaine.
Legal items which are easy to obtain and used to produce cocaine include acetone, sulfuric acid, potassium permanganate, corn starch, and more.
Many producers of cocaine use amphetamines and cheaper opioids to either enhance the effects of cocaine or counteract its effects.
Heroin and caffeine are also commonly used within cocaine.
Fentanyl is a common drug used to cut powdered cocaine.
It is extremely potent, highly addictive, and exposure to or ingestion of pure fentanyl can cause an almost immediate overdose.
Can The Cutting Agents In Cocaine Lead To Side Effects?
Cocaine is a highly addictive drug that can have serious health consequences.
Short-term effects of cocaine use include increased heart rate and blood pressure, increased alertness and energy levels, and feelings of euphoria.
Long-term effects of cocaine use can include heart damage, stroke, and seizure.
Some common cutting agents used in cocaine include levamisole (a veterinary drug) and quinine (a malaria medication).
These substances can cause serious side effects on their own, such as heightened withdrawal symptoms, which can lead to an increased potential for addiction.
Cocaine withdrawal symptoms include depression, fatigue, irritability, nausea, and more.
Treatment Options For Cocaine Addiction
Fortunately, there are a number of addiction treatment programs and services available to help people with substance use disorders (SUDs) involving cocaine use to become sober.
Some of these treatment approaches for cocaine abuse include:
- inpatient programs
- individual and group therapy
- evidence-based therapies
- outpatient programs
- residential rehab programs
Find A Substance Abuse Treatment Center Today
If you or a loved one is in search of addiction treatment for cocaine or other drug use, give our free helpline a call today to discuss obtaining a referral to a treatment facility near you.Article Sources
- National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
- National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)